Glory of Bharath  »  Bharatheeya Samskrithi
Yajur Vedic Upanishads - V

Sukarahasya Upanishad is supposed to have been taught to Sage Suka, so that he would understand the philosophy of salvation. It contains and extensive explanation of the words and ideas that describe this philosophy. Skanda Upanishad takes a conciliatory stand between Shaiva and Vaishnava and concludes that both are the same. Sarvasara Upanishad defines and explains several words like Katha, Bandha, Annamaya etc, which occur constantly in Upanishadic philosophy.

Adhyatma Upanishad was initially taught by Sadashiva to Sage Apantharathamas. It says that there is nothing but Atma and the feeling of existence of others is only illusion. Niralamba Upanishad is an independent text of Hindu philosophy. It tries to investigate what is Brahman and concludes that the Sanyasi has a better chance of attaining salvation by following the proper methods.

Paingala Upanishad was taught by Sage Yagnavalkya to Sage Paingala. It gives an explanation of the term 'Kaivalya'. It also attempts to explain the Maha Vakyas of the Vedas like 'Aham Brahmasmi', as well as the duties of Jnanis. Mantrika Upanishad deals with the properties of Brahman. It explains that whatever is produced, vanishes, and then is reproduced. It concludes that the one who knows it well is the Brahman.

Muktika Upanishad is the teaching of Lord Rama to Hanuman. It tells about the Vedas, Vedangas and Kaivalya, and also summarizes the Hindu Vedanta. The list of 108 Upanishads is also given in this Upanishad. Subala Upanishad is the teaching of Sage Angiras to Sage Raikwa. It tries to answer the question of the time and method of creation of the world. It also tries to find out the properties of the soul of beings and discusses several aspects of philosophy.

In the Avadhuta Upanishad Dattathreya teaches sage Sankrithi as to who is Avadhootha and how he should behave. Katharudra Upanishad is the teaching of Brahma Vidya by Lord Brahma himself to the Devas. The treatment is philosophical. Brahma Upanishad tells us about how the great sage of wisdom comes out of all mundane things and lives a life where there is no need for rituals and no differences exist. The Mantra for changing Yagnopavita occurs in this Upanishad. Jabala Upanishad was compiled by Sage Jabala. This gives more emphasis on meditation and the chanting of Rudram. The importance of concentrating between the centre of the eyes is stressed here.

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